Computer Networking

Most of us are participants in the computer networking phenomenon without being aware of its details and basics. The below article is a brief overview of how it all works. A computer network is a system of networks where computers are interconnected via peer-to-peer connection or client-server connection to share data, information and resources. Networking is the engineering discipline which concerns itself with the communication between computer systems and devices. It is not an independent science since it extensively derives most of its theoretical and practical aspects from other communications technology disciplines like telecommunications, information technology, computer science and computer engineering. It can be called a sub-discipline of these four major disciplines. Let us take a brief look at its basics and get to understand how it all works.

Computer Network Types

There are four major types of computer networks:

LAN or Local Area Network which is a network of computers within a very small area, say one building. Its most distinguishing characteristics are high data exchange rates, very small geographic area coverage and no requirement for leased telecommunication lines.
MAN or Metropolitan Area Network which is a network covering a larger area than LAN, say a network of all computers within a city. A MAN may be owned and operated by a single organization but is used by a larger number of individuals and organizations. MAN may also be used in cable television.
WAN or Wide Area Network which covers a larger geographic area than either LAN or MAN. WAN offers four connection options – leased lines, circuit switching, packet switching and cell relay.
Wireless LAN/WAN is the wireless variant of the LAN or WAN and is related to telecommunications network where the nodes are interconnected without the use of wires or cables. Wireless networking is usually implemented using remote information transmission systems which use electromagnetic frequency for the network carrier and such an implementation generally occurs at the layer of the network.

Computer Networking Methods

Peer-to-Peer Networking: In this method, computers can be directly connected to each other and files and network information can be accessed directly by connecting to another computer. However, for this to take place, it is necessary that the computer from which the data needs to be accessed is turned on. For instance, if Computer B requires the X-files from Computer A, it cannot do so if Computer A is turned off. The computers involved in a peer-to-peer network must be similar and run workstation operating systems.

Setting up a Peer-to-Peer Network:

Start with installing the appropriate operating system.
Shut down all the participant computers and the router (optional) and turn on just one computer which would be used to set up the router.
Follow the instructions for setting up the router. These instructions may come as a manual or as a CD.
After your router is configured, turn off both, the router and the computer.
Connect each participating computer to the router using a separate RJ-45 cable for each connection and turn on the router. Turn on the computers after a few seconds of turning on the router. Soon, you will get a pop up indication of network detection.
If setting up a wireless connection, you would need to connect a wireless router to one computer and configure the router following the configuration instructions.
Install wireless network cards on all other computers. Turn on the router and computers as mentioned above.
Because of the wireless network cards, the other computers won’t be required to be physically connected to the router.

Client-Server Networking: Under this form of networking, all the information and files are centralized on the server and any computer can access any information at any time, irrespective of the source computer’s power status. For instance, extending the above example, Computer B can access the X-files of Computer A even if the latter is turned off. The files would be present on the server! One of the biggest advantages of this kind of networking is that there is network security as the computers are accessing all the data and information via the server, and not directly. The server computer is the single point of contact for all the client computers. Due to centralization of data, information and resources, client-server networking provides centralized backup facilities, Internet facilities and the assurance of Internet monitoring.

Setting up a Client-Server Network:

First of all, you need a server. You can either purchase one or use an existing computer as a server. If you’re using an existing computer as server, make sure it has a 133 MHz or higher speed processor, a minimum RAM of 128 MB, up to 2 GB of free hard disk space, CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive and hardware that supports console redirection.
Install a server operating system on the server computer and follow instructions for such installation very closely.
The final step of installation would probably show you a dialog box confirming successful active directory installation. Your server is now a domain controller and ready for client access.
Once the domain is created, client computer accounts can be created and added to it.

Computer Network Administration

The duties of a computer network administrator includes network maintenance and regulation of all systems and peripherals attached to the network. Windows XP Professional and Windows Server 2003 provide many tools for network management for both P2P as well as CS network administration. For P2P administration, Windows XP Professional offers local and small network tools which are sufficient for managing workstation. On the other hand, Windows Server 2003 provides lots of tools for remote management of servers as well as clients.

That was a brief computer networking tutorial – crash course would be more appropriate! It was a brief attempt towards understanding networking basic before graduating to more advanced niches like the details of how virtual networks function. In case you plan on setting up a network yourself, and you’re not a network professional, make sure to read all the related instructions carefully and follow them verbatim.

Arabic Music Websites – An Undiscovered World For The Music Lovers

Arabic music is not easy to specify, because the rule and principle of which it�s founded have been assumed from peoples non-Arabian like Iran, Byzantines, moors and some others. Yet we can make a differentiation between the original Arabian music, which music was practiced, and practiced nowadays, in it outdated from well earlier the advent of Islam religion and other religion, very recent, made under the Arab domain for the Muslim�s popularity and expansion.

In the inhabited countries of the Arabian music components have been adapted to the regional music and adjusted every time differently. We obviously called it Egyptian Arabic music� and also called Andalusian Arabic music�. Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: Arabic song; Msq Arabyya) is the music genre originated from Arab. It includes various styles from Arabic classical music, western pop influence, and Asian music as well as heritage from other Islamic countries like Egypt, Sudan and many others.

Arabic music is a complete music genre itself. It has exotic feelings along with very rhythmic impressions side by side of the soulful and romantic themes. On the other hand, the Arabic musicians develop their creativity, mix-up with western jazz and hip-hop; surprisingly they create a versatile genre of new era Arabic music. Hopefully it is one of the best music blend or different king of music widely accepted by the whole world. Not only that, it also seamlessly integrated with traditional Arabian belly dance.

In today�s advancement of the Internet, music lovers can now access Arabic music mp3 and other formats from various websites even free. There are also some sites sell Arabic music mp3 online. No problem if you are unable locate them in your nearby music store; you can easily find them on those sites with a very reasonable price along with the cheap delivery services. Usually they ship their products i.e. the CD or DVDs all over the world. Alternatively, you can download them from lots of free websites. They offer free download. You can store your favorite song in your computer�s hard disk with just a single click. Those sites classify the music based on the category and sub-categories for the user-friendliest manner. You can simply register yourself and start downloading. Additionally, they offer various qualities of Arabic mp3 songs with different bit rate. Additionally, some of the websites creates user group or discussion forums to help their users and identify the market trend and user�s requirements.

As an additional feature most of the websites (Free and paid), both shows the over all ratings of any song, so that the user can recognize the popularity of a particular song. Surprisingly, it is noticed that, there are so many Arabic hit numbers also incredibly copied in different counties and they remake the song for their language. This is one of the prime evidence of the popularity of the Arabic music. The main reason of the Arabic music website is noting but the easy navigation, category wise classification of the songs, over all ratings, which make them most popular for most of the music lovers. They are really valuable for finding CDs also. Finally, there is a new type of Arabic music websites make their place in Internet called music sharing through social networking. In short, people share the music through social networking site. So, if you are looking for some really amazing Arabic music, you must check them all.

Affordable Networking Support

Network support services are those which provide enhanced solutions for improving your network throughput. These services include all tasks from building, installing, extending, and upgrading your network for assured smoothness in the working flow.
A very common question that usually arises in every single person’s mind while discussing about network support is that why to hire someone else to provide network consultation for a company? It may be followed up with a very simple answer; it’s always better to do a task that’s well known by you. No single person may expertise in all technical tasks appropriately. Network Support companies exclusively hire certified experts that take care of your network needs.
Hiring a Tech Support Service may include assessment and analysis of your network, network design, planning and implementation of projects. Network consulting services are helpful in another very strange way; they help professionals in finding a way through the weaknesses, risks and opportunities of existing network infrastructure, to maximize the throughput value of this network for company. Once they finish understanding the dominated approaches of network, the process is now followed up by proper network optimizations.
This redesigning and planning of a company network infrastructure in turn assure better outcomes for future projects. The new infrastructure is capable enough of understanding the requirements for future projects and offers a suggested architectural guidance for the network use and operations. In this way professional network assistance may lead towards explaining technical capabilities in an extensive way.
Own a small business and worried about the IT related risks, which may cause work-breakdown? Why not hire some affordable Network consulting service that will help you with handling several IT risks, improving network operations, ease in installation of required IT hardware and software, overall maintenance and management of network, extend growth in the market, accelerate network readiness, performance enhancement, maintain user satisfaction, manage network costs and lots more. Then why not go for such all-in-one service and forget all those worries, in a simpler and effective way.
Looking for a skilled professional under budget! Sunrise Pc Support could be an end to your search for Online Network Support Services. We have an entire team of certified experts having sound knowledge of LAN/WAN cabling and design, IP Communication and network security. We work for customer satisfaction and hence our experts are available 24/7 in your service.
Our services includes the entire range of IT services. We serve consumers with comprehensive solution for all their tech gadgets; be it a computer or laptop, or an issue linked to spyware, virus infect, slow running machine, loss of data, etc or may include larger areas like installation of routers, switches, internet ports, CCTV cameras, video conferencing, Wi-Fi configuration, server configuration and maintenance, seamless internet connectivity, Biometric system, etc. The firms are capable of handling problems related to all companies. Be it Microsoft, Apple, Linux or Cisco, there is a solution for errors.
Reach us when you are in need. Our toll free

What really works when it comes to aging skin care products

Are you confused when it comes to effective Anti aging skin care products? Would you like to know what ingredients to look for in when it comes to Anti Aging products that produce real results?

At Tevaskincare we are committed to bringing you the Most Effective Anti Aging Cream available today..at any price! ARYU-DEVA Renewal Complex contains the highest quality scientifically proven ingredients when it comes to Anti Aging Skin Cream..We Guarantee it! Based in Ayurvedic formula botanicals, our skin treatment cream is also the best Best Skin Moisturizer you will ever use. Give our skin care products a 30 days trial and you will agree ARYU-DEVA RENEWAL COMPLEX beats all the other Anti Wrinkle Creams available today..hands down!
Lets face it…Anti Aging Skin Cream and other anti aging skin treatments are big business today. Many instant results outrageous claims are made all the time..usually at outrageous prices too.. Are you confused when it comes to finding the best Anti Aging Products for your particular skin type and concerns?

All Anti Aging Products today should contain peptides in meaningful concentrations. But how to understand the science behind the ingredients in determining the most effective anti aging cream? At Teva Skin Science, our goal is to help provide the necessary information for our customers to make informed decisions about Intelligent Skin Care.
Everyone wants to maintain a healthy, youthful look and radiance as long as possible. The best skin cream used regularly can turn back and slow down the clock without injection therapy (Botox) or plastic surgery..but you must use the correct anti aging creams with meaningful, effective ingredients. Aryu-Deva Renewal Complex used over time has proven itself superior to far more invasive and expensive anti aging skin treatment processes by our loyal customers (Testimonials on File).
Teva Skin Science introduced Aryu-Deva Renewal Complex in 2010 and guarantees it is the most effective anti aging cream you have ever tried. Containing a high concentration of proprietary Ayurvedic botanical extracts, combined with modern peptide science, ARYU-DEVA Renewal Complex is the targeted solution (anti aging skin cream) for the many concerns of aging skin.

These include not only fine lines and dynamic (expression) wrinkles, but also spots and blotches, generalized uneven skin tone, loss of elasticity (sagging skin), enlarged pores and spider veins…all due to the natural aging process, but also partly caused by environmental exposure and pollutants, improper diet, smoking etc. Addressing the multiple concerns of anti aging skin care in one product, Aryu-Deva Renewal Complex is both convenient and cost-effective. Take The Aryu-Deva Challenge..We Guarantee Real, Visible Results.. or your money back, no questions asked.

Aryu-Deva Renewal Complex has also been proven in clinical trials to be remarkably gentle and non-irritating to over 97% of trial users, even those with rosacea! In summary, our amazingly effective Anti Aging Skin Cream addresses the multi-factorial concerns of aging skin, with noticeable reduction in wrinkle depth and improvement in skin tone and texture within a week or two of twice per day usage.

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Face Skin Care For Men – 4 Things That Every Man’s Face Skin Care Regime Should Address

So it really is a very good thought to make positive that you are clean shaven on date night, or in any other case nicely groomed for her on the tactic.

But much more than that, your confront has to appearance “inviting”. So until your pedigree incorporates “Canine Shar-Pei”, you do not want to get the probability that she’ll discover sagging skin and a wrinkly experience attractive.

A great place to commence is by adhering to the right masculine men’s anti-aging face care schedule. The very first move is cleaning your experience properly with a higher good quality cleaner to get rid of these dead cells, so that your skin is not uninteresting shopping and tough to the touch. Stay clear of soaps and frequent cleansers formulated with sulfates, due to the fact that things has no anti-aging added benefits, dries the skin and doesn’t get rid of the gunk and junk on the masculine confront – they’re there, even if you can not see them with the naked eye. What you have to have is a excellent masculine encounter treatment cleaner that is gentle enough to provide out the masculine skin’s healthy moisture, but powerful ample to unclog pores and minimize through the grime. In brief, you have to have cleaner designed for masculine guys.

The second move is to feed your encounter with a tremendous cocktail of botanical nutrients and anti-getting older substances. The cure is like an vitality consume for your skin. Treatment minimizes high-quality lines and wrinkles by supporting to restore the masculine skin’s healthy balance, rebuild collagen and elasticity, repair previous hurt, and strengthen versus more assaults by no cost radicals and the natural environment. Remember: shaving strips away the masculine skin’s organic moisture barrier, leaving it dry and uncovered to injury and premature getting older. On the other hand, with the advance masculine anti-aging deal with treatment remedy, you get started to undo this injury and preserve the signs of premature aging at bay.

The third and last stage is defending your experience. The suitable protectant picks up wherever the treatment method leaves off. It can help to strengthen the masculine skin’s inner structure, while sealing in moisture. A large effectiveness masculine anti-getting older encounter care protectant balances high-tech cutting edge anti-aging active components with vital oils from tremendous fruits with collateral properties. It also facilitates the masculine skin sense refreshed and nourished. This is particularly vital when you’re exposing your skin to temperature fluctuations – this kind of as external heat to air conditioning in the summer months, or external cold to within warmth in the winter. These fluctuations cause dryness, itching, flaking and premature aging and the final matter you want is for your masculine encounter to get dry, itchy and flaky though you and your date are encountering that very first fancy meal with each other. Ok – now that you Appear superior and Experience superior about yourself, let’s get back again to that 1st date.

Does she happily take? Or mumble a thing about remaining a very little fatigued, or possessing to call it a evening, simply because she requirements to be up early to decide on-up Aunt Mildred from the face care for men

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Face Rash – What Is The Solution And Tips For Skin Care

The worst part of having eczema of the face is that you can not hide it under your clothes and constantly thinking about it. Eczema of the face horrified me and I worried about it non-stop!

The constant stress will affect your overall health, so it is important to take care of this as quickly as possible. You should seek some relief for your eczema of the face as soon as you can and can not turn it off, which is exactly what I did.

It is the largest organ in your body is your skin and facial skin is the thinnest skin of any for you, so it is very important to correct anything that can keep him healthy.

Also, the skin of your face is exposed to the elements and the most sensitive skin of your body. Because of this, I found that my eczema of the face is more sensitive than the rest of eczema on my body.

Insensible water loss and hydration

You probably already know that eczema is caused by excessive drying of the skin. But you may not know that the skin of your body has a natural cycle of moisture loss. This is a condition called insensible water loss, or PIE.

TEWL is a scientific term, that there is an unexplained loss of water from very deep layers of the skin. This is really a problem for example, your face because the skin so thin. Therefore, my facial rash seemed to remain dry.

TEWL is a problem that just because you see on the surface hydration to the skin, does not mean that it is only putting you have loss of water. But the skin is the first thing you notice and this phenomenon usually appears as a rash on the face.

It ‘important to note that whenever you see eczema then your organs and other internal parts are also affected by loss of water. This is why most treatments of eczema and hydration by drinking plenty of water stress.

To compensate for TEWL it is recommended to drink twice daily water needs to be hydrated and to help keep your eczema under control of the face.

Cortisol and Stress Management

Cortisol is often used as part of the treatment of eczema. It is a hormone that is synthesized in a common topical ointment. Cortisol creams are a popular choice for the treatment of eczema.

But that’s another story under your skin. When you feel stressed your body will produce adrenaline. To counteract the production of adrenalin your body produces cortisol. This is because cortisol will slow your bodily functions to include the immune system.

Typically, it is only a short term solution and your body will return to normal. But in these times of stress, if you are stressed all the time, then your cortisol levels will never go down. This will put your immune system in a weakened state and keep it there.

Do not compromise an individual when there is beauty and skin care products. Take care of your facial skin are very necessary and important, because every person has the love sizzle look elegant and cool. Face is, of course, the most visible part of the whole body, and for this reason most people give very careful to keep the skin healthy and granules.

There are many tips and techniques that can be handled with the best treatment for facial skin. Secrets are revealed here for full denotation. Try to understand!

Having a clear, beautiful skin hydrated and radiant not only make you look good, but it certainly makes you feel more than any other million. Caring for the skin of the face should be done according to skin type and texture. In addition to the daily care simply and clearly, it is good to practice effective care in the face to get a healthy skin and shiny.

Care for your facial expression will sincerely help you much better to prevent premature aging, skin problems, acne, scars and many other skin problems. Skin Care of the face is just more simple and can be easily done at home. It takes just minutes to make health care expensive facial skin as they treat involved, is just simple. The daily routine will be very satisfactory, while the moment you see in your mirror.

Practice clean and healthy skin of the face makes you imagine a clean, smooth, facial skin healthy and vibrant. Here are some simple tips to make your daily face care more efficient.

1. Wash your face long enough, as the fine dust and dirt, completely clean. This will make your skin is safe and free of acne and pimples. Wash your face regularly is one of the best facial skin care tips that will give you a complete cure any skin problem.

Second Offering a soothing massage to your face with olive oil, and they are the best facial skin care to provide comprehensive skin moisturizer. In addition, they clean the face by removing fine dirt and thus keep them shiny.

They have a defective immune system is the main cause of eczema and for me usually occurs in eczema of the face, my luck! However, the eczema of the face is the first symptom and, finally, you get other health problems.

For this reason, it is extremely important that you get your stress under control. Most experts agree with this and recommend a stress reduction plan as part of the fight against facial eczema.

It should not be taken lightly

These are just two reasons why you might have a rash of the face, and it is important to understand that lead to other health problems. There are countless other reasons why you suffer from eczema, and this site deals with these things.

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What are the reasons Husband needs mens skin care equipment or face care for men to halt maturing

As everyone knows, women are usually more aware about their attractiveness strategy and are also captivated with tending goods. But currently, adult males too are concerned about his or her cosmetics. They surely don t need to period in addition. There are businesses that presented mens skin care to meet the demands of men. Facelube also come up with their large varieties of face care for men

Permit us talk about your skin method of guys. Guys contain coarser and greasier skin versus women do. On top of that they must shave their countenance almost day-to-day and hence need face care for men.The huge pores in their looks tend to become bigger due to standard shaving and also have the inclination to accumulate dust. Thus, it is extremely essential for males to deal with this skin and application mens skin care to await the physical strategy of getting older. These products are not really slippery such as the women?s gel.

Lot of researches are executed for making face care for men The substances found in such creams need to be stated in the mentioned approach that these can penetrate your skin on the countenance until rich and work well. Several important elements present in face care for men are Cynergy TK, Nano-Lipobelle HEQ10, Phytessence Wakame, Physical Vitamin E, Grapeseed Oil and Babassu. As men?s skin is a bit more allowed to flush, swelling, rage, these compounds are decided need that in proper care of. These kinds of ointments reduce collagen loss, hydroaluronic sour burning and free radicals to prevent maturing distant. Cynergy TK assists keeping Prostaglandin E2 producing it and that is liable for an array of itching that may appear out of your by using the cream.

Facelube is now up with a superb mens skin care. This kind of package is manufactured in The states which is offered at Amazon at 245 dollars. The equipment weighs just one pound. The major elements this kind of face care for men are that this functions in a few methods like purifying, lubricating and safe-guarding. It is certainly regarded as a top quality product and Facelube has tried mega modern advances to prepare it.

These Facelube Extremely mens skin care has become very popular among adult males who are incredibly hectic. Before, these hardly found time for it to try to find the reflect, but through the use of this gear these women have observed a large change within countenance. They appear for being proud to get a great anti-aging skin out of wrinkling and spots. This specific Male face care for men can bring results inside days of utilize. It cannot function miracles overnight but using making use of few push capsules you might be sure to experience completely satisfied.

Almost all of the buyers who are utilising Facelube Ultra mens skin care products or face care for men products are exceptionally impressed. In spite of being expensive, it usually keeps its insinuate and assists skin surface of men?s countenance dermis and refreshing. Besides itone would not have the hassle to come any supermarket to look via equipment and see revenues people harassing about a few if you buy from Bigpond.
face care for men

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Join a Web-Based Networking Group

Many aspects of our lives these days, from finding health-care information to getting traffic updates, have migrated to the virtual world of the Internet�”and the same thing is happening in networking. We’re not really surprised by this.

After all, the Internet is undeniably one of the fastest ways to exponentially increase your visibility to hundreds of thousands of people�”for whatever pur-pose. From a business perspective, going online takes your company instantly into the international arena. Suddenly, you and your business become accessible worldwide, 24/7/365.

If you harness the power of the Internet wisely, the result can be something like putting your business networking efforts on steroids. Now businesspeople are starting to use the same family of technology to find business clients, new partners, and jobs through virtual contacts they make online.

The earliest online networking sites were personal connection services, helping people reestablish old ties (long-lost friends and classmates, genealogy, etc.) or make new ones (dating and match�making). Today, online social networking forums such as Facebook, Google Plus, Ibosocial, Linkedin, and Pinterest are being used more and more for business purposes.

Instant messaging is one of the three most popular Internet activities in the United States�”after e-mail and search�” and is a key driver of user engagement. In other words, the Internet has created powerful new ways for human beings to contact each other.

Since these social networks are successful at bringing people together, why not consider using the same system to bring business professionals together�”to design and expand networks, form partnerships, increase visibility, and dramatically increase network diversity?

If you belong to a face-to-face networking group and then join an online networking group consider creating a regional or national club or subcommunity for the members of your in-person group. By combining the in-person networking with an online networking program, you enhance the relationships with people that you meet regularly, and you expand your networking efforts with others around the world.

Keep in mind that it’s not enough just to join and get your name on the membership list. You must focus on building relation�ships (turning contacts into connections) with other members of the community. This is a new concept to some, but others quickly realize that they can develop a relationship with people without meeting face-to-face.

Be active in the community. Post topics on threads that deal with your area of expertise. Respond to postings on other threads if the subject is at all relevant to your field of expertise.

The more you are “seen,” the larger the number of people with whom you interact on the site, the more you’re talked about, and the more visibility you will gain. One note of caution: Don’t join too many of these, or you’ll spread yourself too thin to build good relationships.

Do I Need Music Software

Well answer some more questions… Do you like music? Do you find it convenient to download and store music on your computer/ipod(or other type of mp3 player)? Do you hate how long it takes to download music? Do you like to make mixes? Do you find it difficult to keep your collection organized on your computer? Well… if you answer yes to several of these questions than you probably would find it worth your while to invest in some good music software.

Music software is software that makes downloading and listening to music much much easier. There are many services that can be offered by a software package but the basic service of music organization is always there. These programs are set up to evaluate the song(s) and automatically will organize them according to predetermined preferences. The organization is such that you can browse by category, artist, date downloaded, name of song, etc. It also will allow you to do a directory wide search keeping all of the titles on the tip of your finger for maximum enjoyment possibilities.

Other services that music software packages will often provide are links to good sources of online music and account information banks allowing you quick and easy access. Download accelerators are a common feature. Mix creation wizards are a cool and relatively new addition to the digital music world. This is in essence a tool that allows you to automatically create a mix using the entirety of your music collection and answers to questions that you provide it. For instance if you would like to make a 70’s greatest hits compilation than you can order it up and it will happen automatically.

So where would I get music software? Well there are many ways. As usual there is a ton of sites that offer all manner of this popular product. You can also go to most computer stores/technology stores and find good products. My advice is to go online and look at a bunch of reviews and try to select one that has the capabilities that fit you best. Be confident with whatever you buy too because these are great little programs and they aren’t that expensive for the increased power over your music collection.

Slow network Transfer

Slow network transfers can be caused by many factors. The most common complaint regarding slow transfers come from users attempting to access data over the Internet. However, in corporate networks, slow network complaints may also come from users attempting to access corporate applications. Whatever the case, there are some common factors that cause slow transfer speed (or the perception of slow transfer speed) that may apply across any size network.

The Slowest Component

Imagine that you have been tasked to drain a pool of its water. The hose attached to the pump is wide and can work under tremendous pressure so it is therefore capable of moving large volumes of water quickly, however, it is not long enough to bridge the gap between the location of the pump and the pool itself. Connectors are used to attach more heavy duty hosing but the connectors themselves are quite narrow and brittle.

Once the pump is switched on and the water begins to flow you find that only a fraction of the hoses’ ample capacity is used because the water is backed up at the narrow connectors!

This analogy is true of networks, network transfers are only as fast as their slowest component. Consider your computer the water pump and the Internet the pool of water. If the connection between your computer and the Internet has any ‘narrow’ connectors at all then the entire flow is slowed to a trickle despite the majority of the infrastructure having a much greater capacity.

Technically speaking, the ‘narrow connector’ causing the slow network transfer need not be a slow link (although it is entirely possible that a slow link may be the actual bottleneck). A busy web site, inefficient routing, busy proxy servers, content filtering, traffic shaping and/or packet loss are just a few factors in a very long list of possible causes that can lead to slow network transfers.

User Expectation

As users, we would like transparency from the underlying technology. But when it comes to network transfers, any technology limitations can be difficult to mask. Those of us old enough to remember the Internet in the 1990s would recall waiting hours for some file transfers to complete. That type of response would be unacceptable today, and it is almost certain that todays’ network delays will be just as unacceptable in years to come.

In other words, the end users expectation is a leading factor for just what a ‘slow’ network transfer is. That is not to say that slow transfers are just a matter of perception. We become accustomed to certain levels of performance on the network and when they are not met the impact is obvious.